Services de rencontres russes

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Five I's of Services[edit]

Services can be paraphrased in terms of their key characteristics, sometimes called the "Five I's of Services".


Inventory (perishability)[edit]

Services have little or no tangible components and therefore cannot be stored for a future use. Services are produced and consumed during the same period of time.

Services are perishable in two regards:

  • The service relevant resources, processes and systems are assigned for service delivery during a definite period in time. If the designated or scheduled service consumer does not request and consume the service during this period, the service cannot be performed for him. From the perspective of the service provider, this is a lost business opportunity as he cannot charge any service delivery; potentially, he can assign the resources, processes and systems to another service consumer who requests a service. Examples: The hairdresser serves another client when the scheduled starting time or time slot is over. An empty seat on a plane never can be utilized and charged after departure.
  • When the service has been completely rendered to the requesting service consumer, this particular service irreversibly vanishes as it has been consumed by the service consumer. Example: the passenger has been transported to the destination and cannot be transported again to this location at this point in time.


The service provider is indispensable for service delivery as they must promptly generate and render the service to the requesting service consumer. In many cases the service delivery is executed automatically but the service provider must preparatorily assign resources and systems and actively keep up appropriate service delivery readiness and capabilities. Additionally, the service consumer is inseparable from service delivery because he is involved in it from requesting it up to consuming the rendered benefits. Examples: The service consumer must sit in the hairdresser's shop & chair yor in the plane & seat; correspondingly, the hairdresser or the pilot must be in the same shop or plane, respectively, for delivering the service.

Inconsistency (variability)[edit]


One of the most important characteristics of services is the participation of the customer in the service delivery process. A customer has the opportunity to get the services modified according to specific requirement.


  1. Service consumer benefits – describe the (set of) benefits which are triggerable, consumable and effectively utilizable for any authorized service consumer and which are rendered to him as soon as he triggers one service. The description of these benefits must be phrased in the terms and wording of the intended service consumers.
  2. Service-specific functional parameters – specify the functional parameters which are essential and unique to the respective service and which describe the most important dimension(s) of the servicescape, the service output or the service outcome, e.g. maximum e-mailbox capacity per registered and authorized e-mailing service consumer.
  3. Service delivery point – describes the physical location and/or logical interface where the benefits of the service are triggered from and rendered to the authorized service consumer. At this point and/or interface, the preparedness for service delivery readiness can be assessed as well as the effective delivery of each triggered service can be monitored and controlled.
  4. Service consumer count – specifies the number of intended, clearly identified, explicitly named, definitely registered and authorized service consumers which shall be and/or are allowed and enabled to trigger and consume the commissioned service for executing and/or supporting their business tasks or private activities.
  5. Service delivering readiness times – specify the distinct agreed times of every day of the week when
  6. the described service consumer benefits are
  7. triggerable for the authorized service consumers at the defined service delivery point
  8. consumable and utilizable for the authorized service consumers at the respective agreed service level
  9. all the required service contributions are aggregated to the triggered service
  10. the specified service benefits are completely and terminally rendered to any authorized triggering service consumer without any delay or friction. The time data are specified in 24 h format per local working day and local time UTC, referring to the location of the intended and/or triggering service consumers.
  11. Service consumer support times – specify the determined and agreed times of every day of the week when the triggering and consumption of commissioned services is supported by the service desk team for all identified, registered and authorized service consumers within the service customer's organizational unit or area. The service desk is/shall be the so-called the Single Point of Contact (SPoC) for any authorized service consumer inquiry regarding the commissioned, triggered and/or rendered services, particularly in the event of service denial, i.e. an incident. During the defined service consumer support times, the service desk can be reached by phone, e-mail, web-based entries, and fax, respectively. The time data are specified in 24 h format per local working day and local time UTC, referring to the location of the intended service consumers.
  12. Service consumer support language – specifies the national languages which are spoken by the service desk team(s) to the service consumers calling them.
  13. Service fulfillment target – specifies the service provider's promise of effectively and seamlessly deliver the specified benefits to any authorized service consumer triggering a service within the specified service delivery readiness times. It is expressed as the promised minimum ratio of the count of successful individual service deliveries related to the count of triggered service deliveries. The effective service fulfillment ratio can be measured and calculated per single service consumer or per service consumer group and may be referred to different time periods (workhour, workday, calendarweek, workmonth, etc.)
  14. Service impairment duration per incident – specifies the maximum allowable elapsing time [hh:mm] between
  15. the first occurrence of a service impairment, i.e. service quality degradation, service delivery disruption or service denial, whilst the service consumer consumes and utilizes the requested service,
  16. the full resumption and complete execution of the service delivery to the content of the affected service consumer.
  17. Service delivering duration – specifies the promised and agreed maximum allowable period of time for effectively rendering all specified service consumer benefits to the triggering service consumer at his currently chosen service delivery point.
  18. Service delivery unit – specifies the basic portion for rendering the defined service consumer benefits to the triggering service consumer. The service delivery unit is the reference and mapping object for the Service Delivering Price, for all service costs as well as for charging and billing the consumed service amounts to the service customer who has commissioned the service delivery.
  19. Service delivering price – specifies the amount of money the commissioning service customer has to pay for a distinct service delivery unit or for a distinct amount of service delivery units. Normally, the service delivering price comprises two portions
  20. a fixed basic price portion for basic efforts and resources which provide accessibility and usability of the service delivery functions, i.e. service access price
  21. a price portion covering the service consumption based on
  22. fixed flat rate price per authorized service consumer and reference period for an unlimited amount of consumed services,
  23. staged prices per authorized service consumer and reference period for staged amounts of consumed services,
  24. fixed price per single consumed service delivering unit.


The delivery of a service typically involves six factors:

  • The accountable service provider and his service suppliers (e.g. the people)
  • Equipment used to provide the service (e.g. vehicles, cash registers, technical systems, computer systems)
  • The physical facilities (e.g. buildings, parking, waiting rooms)
  • The requesting service consumer
  • Other customers at the service delivery location
  • Customer contact

The service encounter is defined as all activities involved in the service delivery process. Some service managers use the term "moment of truth" to indicate that defining point in a specific service encounter where interactions are most intense.

In some service industries, especially health care, dispute resolution, and social services, a popular concept is the idea of the caseload, which refers to the total number of patients, clients, litigants, or claimants that a given employee is presently responsible for. On a daily basis, in all those fields, employees must balance the needs of any individual case against the needs of all other current cases as well as their own personal needs.

Lovelock has used two issues of number of delivery sites (whether single or multiple) and the method of delivery to classify services in a 2 x 3 matrix. Then implications here are that the convenience of receiving the service is the lowest when the customer has to come to the service and must use a single or specific outlets. As his options multiply, the degree of convenience can go on rising, from being able to choose desirable sites, .to getting access at convenient locations. (Table 1.6.

Service-commodity goods continuum[edit]

There has been a long academic debate on what makes services different from goods. The historical perspective in the late-eighteen and early-nineteenth centuries focused on creation and possession of wealth. Classical economists contended that goods were objects of value over which ownership rights could be established and exchanged. Ownership implied tangible possession of an object that had been acquired through purchase, barter or gift from the producer or previous owner and was legally identifiable as the property of the current owner.


  • Business functions (that apply to all organizations in general)
  • Consulting
  • Customer service
  • Human resources administrators (providing services like ensuring that employees are paid accurately)
  • Childcare
  • Cleaning, repair and maintenance services
  • Gardeners
  • Janitors (who provide cleaning services)
  • Mechanics
  • Construction
  • Carpentry
  • Electricians (offering the service of making wiring work properly)
  • Plumbing
  • Death care
  • Coroners (who provide the service of identifying cadavers and determining time and cause of death)
  • Funeral homes (who prepare corpses for public display, cremation or burial)
  • Dispute resolution and prevention services
  • Arbitration
  • Courts of law (who perform the service of dispute resolution backed by the power of the state)
  • Diplomacy
  • Incarceration (provides the service of keeping criminals out of society)
  • Law enforcement (provides the service of identifying and apprehending criminals)
  • Lawyers (who perform the services of advocacy and decisionmaking in many dispute resolution and prevention processes)
  • Mediation
  • Military (performs the service of protecting states in disputes with other states)
  • Negotiation (not really a service unless someone is negotiating on behalf of another)
  • Education (institutions offering the services of teaching and access to information)
  • Library
  • Museum
  • School
  • Entertainment (when provided live or within a highly specialized facility)
  • Gambling
  • Movie theatres (providing the service of showing a movie on a big screen)
  • Performing arts productions
  • Sexual services
  • Sport
  • Television
  • Fabric care
  • Dry cleaning
  • Self-service laundry (offering the service of automated fabric cleaning)
  • Financial services
  • Accountancy
  • Banks and building societies (offering lending services and safekeeping of money and valuables)
  • Real estate
  • Stock brokerages
  • Tax preparation
  • Valuation
  • Foodservice industry
  • Health care (all health care professions provide services)
  • Hospitality industry
  • Information services
  • Data processing
  • Database services
  • Interpreting
  • Translation
  • Personal grooming
  • Body hair removal
  • Dental hygienist
  • Hairdressing
  • Manicurist / pedicurist
  • Public utility
  • Electric power
  • Natural gas
  • Telecommunications
  • Waste management
  • Water industry
  • Risk management
  • Insurance
  • Security
  • Social services
  • Social work
  • Transport

List of countries by tertiary output[edit]

Below is a list of countries by service output at market exchange rates in 2015.

Largest countries by tertiary output according to IMF and CIA World Factbook, 2015
Economy Countries by tertiary output in 2015 (billions in USD)
(01)  United States 14,083
(—)  European Union 13,483
(02)  China 5,202
(03)  Japan 3,078
(04)  Germany 2,335
(05)  United Kingdom 2,248
(06)  France 1,948
(07)  Italy 1,362
(08)  Brazil 1,340
(09)  India 1,336
(10)  Canada 1,132
(11)  Spain 878
(12)  South Korea 845
(13)  Australia 844
(14)  Mexico 740
(15)  Russia 702
(16)  Netherlands 561
(17)   Switzerland 499
(18)  Turkey 488
(19)  Belgium 362
(20)  Taiwan 358

The twenty largest countries by tertiary output in 2015, according to the IMF and CIA World Factbook.

See also[edit]

  • Goods and services
  • Intangible good
  • Good (economics)
  • Product (economics)
  • Deliverable
  • List of economics topics


Wikimedia Commons has media related to Services.


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