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datedate palm

Etymology[edit]

History of dates[edit]

Dates[edit]

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date

Cultivars[edit]

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  • Aabel – common in Libya.
  • Ajwah – from the town of Medina in Saudi Arabia, it is the subject of a Hadith.
  • Al-Khunaizi – from the town of Qatif in Saudi Arabia.
  • Amir Hajj or Amer Hajj – from Iraq, these are soft with a thin skin and thick flesh, sometimes called "the visitor's date" because it is a delicacy served to guests.
  • ʿAbid Rahim (Arabic: عبد رحيم‎‎) – from Sudan. In Nigeria it is called Dabino and is commonly used by Nigerian Muslims to break their Ramadan fast.
  • Barakawi (Arabic: بركاوي‎‎) – from Sudan.
  • Barhee or barhi (from Arabic barh, meaning "a hot wind") – these are nearly spherical, light amber to dark brown when ripe; soft, with thick flesh and rich flavour. One of the few varieties that are good in the khalal stage when they are yellow (like a fresh grape as opposed to dry, like a raisin).
  • Bireir (Arabic: برير‎‎) – from Sudan.
  • Dabbas – from United Arab Emirates.
  • Datça – in Turkey
  • Deglet Noor (Algerian Arabic: دڨلة نور )— so named because the centre appears light or golden when held up to the sun. This is a leading date in Libya, Algeria, the United States, and Tunisia, in the latter it is grown in inland oases and is the chief export cultivar. Its texture is semi-dry and is not very sweet.
  • Derrie or Dayri (the "Monastery" date) – from southern Iraq – these are long, slender, nearly black, and soft.
  • Empress – developed by the DaVall family in Indio, California, United States, from a seedling of Thoory. It is large, and is softer and sweeter than Thoory. It generally has a light tan top half and brown bottom half.
  • Fardh or Fard – common in Oman, deep dark brown, tender skin, sweet flavor, small seed. Keeps well when well packed.
  • Ftimi or Alligue – these are grown in inland oases of Tunisia.
  • Holwah (Halawi) (Arabic for sweet) – these are soft, and extremely sweet, small to medium in size.
  • Haleema – in Hoon, Libya (Haleema is a woman's name).
  • Hayany (Hayani) – from Egypt ("Hayany" is a man's name) – these dates are dark-red to nearly black and soft.
  • Honey – Another name of Mazafati dates, it is also famous as Honey dates all around the world because of its taste, and high moisture content. [17]
  • Iteema – common in Algeria.
  • Kenta – common in Tunisia.
  • Khadrawi or Khadrawy (Arabic: 'green') – a cultivar favoured by many Arabs, it is a soft, very dark date.
  • Khalasah (Arabic for quintessence) – one of the most famous palm cultivars in Saudi Arabia, famous for its sweetness level that is not high nor low, thus, suits most people. Its fruit is called Khlas. Its famous place is Hofuf (Al-Ahsa) and Qatif in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia (ash-Sharqīyah).
  • Khastawi (Khusatawi, Kustawy) – this is the leading soft date in Iraq; it is syrupy and small in size, prized for dessert.
  • Khenaizi – from United Arab Emirates.
  • Lulu – from United Arab Emirates.
  • Maktoom (Arabic for hidden) – this is a large, red-brown, thick-skinned, soft, medium-sweet date.
  • Manakbir – a large fruit that ripens early.
  • Medjool or (Majdool) (Arabic: مجدول‎‎) – from Morocco, also grown in the United States, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, and Palestinian Territories; a large, sweet and succulent date.
  • Migraf (Mejraf) – very popular in Southern Yemen, these are large, golden-amber dates.
  • Mgmaget Ayuob – from Hun, Libya.
  • Mishriq (Arabic: مشرق‎‎ "east") – from Sudan and Saudi Arabia.
  • Mazafati or Mozafati – (Persian: مضافتی‎‎, "Suburban/Peripheral") It is a dark, fleshy and sweet date of medium size with a relatively high moisture content and is suited for fresh consumption, i.e. not dried. At a temperature of −5 degrees Celsius (23 °F) it can be kept for up to 2 years. It is grown in Iran, in particular in Kerman province, and often named "Bam date", after the city of Bam in that province.[18]
  • Nabtat-seyf – in Saudi Arabia.
  • Piarom (also known as maryami, mariami, marayami or "chocolate") – A round, black-brown semi-dry date.[19]
  • Rotab (Arabic :رطب) – from Saudi Arabia, they are dark and soft.
  • Sag‘ai – from Saudi Arabia.
  • Saidy (Saidi) – soft, very sweet, these are popular in Libya.
  • Sayer (Sayir) (Arabic for common) – these dates are dark orange-brown, of medium size, soft and syrupy.
  • Sukkary – (lit. sugary) (Arabic: سكري) Dark brown skin; distinctly sweet and soft flesh, from Saudi Arabia (Qassim), it is the most expensive kind.
  • Sellaj – (Arabic: سلّج‎‎) in Saudi Arabia.
  • indi - (Sinhala: ඉඳ) called in Sri Lanka.
  • Tagyat – common in Libya.
  • Tamej – in Libya.
  • Thoory (Thuri) – popular in Algeria, this dry date is brown-red when cured with a bluish bloom and very wrinkled skin. Its flesh is sometimes hard and brittle but the flavour described as sweet and nutty.
  • Umeljwary – in Libya.
  • Umelkhashab – Brilliant red skin; bittersweet, hard white flesh (Saudi Arabia).
  • Zahidi (Arabic for [Of the] ascetic) – these medium size, cylindrical, light golden-brown semi-dry dates are very sugary, and sold as soft, medium-hard and hard.
  • Zaghloul (Arabic: زغلول‎‎) – Dark red skin, long, and very crunchy when fresh (when they are typically served); extremely sweet, with sugar content creating a sense of desiccation in the mouth when eaten. The variety is essentially exclusive to Egypt, where it is subject to an element of nationalist sentiment on account of sharing a name with national hero Saad Zaghloul.

Production[edit]

Top ten date producers – 2013
(1000 metric tonnes)
 Egypt 1502
 Iran 1084
 Saudi Arabia 1065
 Algeria 848
 Iraq 676
 Pakistan 527
 Sudan 438
 South Sudan 432
 Oman 269
 United Arab Emirates 245
Source:
UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[20]

Fruit food uses[edit]

Dates can also be dehydrated, ground and mixed with grain to form a nutritious stockfeed.

Nutritional value[edit]

Dates, Deglet Noor
Deglet Noor dates
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 1,178 kJ (282 kcal)
Carbohydrates 75.03 g
Sugars 63.35 g
Dietary fiber 8 g
Fat 0.39 g
Protein 2.45 g
Vitamins
Vitamin A equiv. beta-carotene lutein zeaxanthin (0%) 6 μg 75 μg
Vitamin A 10 IU
Thiamine (B1) (5%) 0.052 mg
Riboflavin (B2) (6%) 0.066 mg
Niacin (B3) (8%) 1.274 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5) (12%) 0.589 mg
Vitamin B6 (13%) 0.165 mg
Folate (B9) (5%) 19 μg
Vitamin C (0%) 0.4 mg
Vitamin E (0%) 0.05 mg
Vitamin K (3%) 2.7 μg
Minerals
Calcium (4%) 39 mg
Iron (8%) 1.02 mg
Magnesium (12%) 43 mg
Manganese (12%) 0.262 mg
Phosphorus (9%) 62 mg
Potassium (14%) 656 mg
Sodium (0%) 2 mg
Zinc (3%) 0.29 mg
Other constituents
Water 20.53 g
Link to USDA Database entry
  • Units
  • μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams
  • IU = International units
  • Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
    Source: USDA Nutrient Database

    Other uses of the fruits[edit]

    In Pakistan, a viscous, thick syrup made from the ripe fruits is used as a coating for leather bags and pipes to prevent leaking.

    Uses of other parts of the plant[edit]

    Seeds[edit]

    Fruit clusters[edit]

    Sap[edit]

    Leaves[edit]

    Wood[edit]

    Cultural symbols[edit]

    Symbolic connotations[edit]

    Diseases and pests[edit]

    Date palm genome[edit]

    Types of dates[edit]

    This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

    Several types of dates can be found in Arabia, some of them are listed here.

    English Arabic English Arabic English Arabic English Arabic
    Afandi أفندي Jebaily جبيلي Medjool مجهول Sawaida سويدا
    Ajwah عجوة Ka'ekah كعيكه Menaify منيفي Shahel شهل
    Anbarah عنبرة Khalas خلاص Meskany مسكاني Shalaby شلابي
    Baiḍ بيض Khoudry خضري Mushukah مشوكة Shoukry شقري
    Barny برني Khuḍab خصاب Rabiyyah ربيعة Sufry صفري
    Berḥi برحي Lunah لونة Rashudiah رشوديه Sukkary سكري
    Gharr غر Lubanah لبانة Safawy صفاوي Suqa'ey صقعي
    Ḥelwah حلوة Mabrum مبروم Shishy شيشي Wananah ونانة
    Ḥelya حلية Maktoomi مكتومي Sariyyah سارية Dhawy ذاوي

    Gallery[edit]

    • Sukkary

    • Ammari

    • Angou

    • Arichti

    • Bejjou

    • Bisr Helou

    • Gounda

    • Gousbi

    • Branch of Hamraya dates

    • Hissa

    • Hissa

    • Kenta

    • Kentichi

    • Lagou

    • Touzerzayet from Tunisia

    • Trounja

    • Date palm with fruits at the Abdul Aziz Date Farm in Medina.

    • Ripe and dry dates fruit bunches at the Khurram Abdullah Bajwa Date Farm in Medina.

    • Dates growing in Yuma, Arizona

    • Dates from Algarve, Portugal

    • Palm Tree Boulevards in Rishon LeZion

    See also[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. ^ The Plant List, Phoenix dactylifera L.
    2. ^ "USDA GRIN Taxonomy". 
    3. ^ Morton, J. 1987. Date. p. 5–11. In: Fruits of warm climates. Julia F. Morton. Miami, FL. — Purdue University. Center for New Crops and Plants Products.
    4. ^ Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, Phoenix dactylifera
    5. ^ Biota of North America Project, Phoenix dactylifera
    6. ^ Flora of China, v 253 p 143, Phoenix dactylifera
    7. ^ Divya Bichu. "Arabian Desert Plants". Buzzle. Retrieved 19 April 2015. 
    8. ^ δάκτυλος. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
    9. ^ fĕro. Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short. A Latin Dictionary on Perseus Project.
    10. ^ Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark; Heuston, Kimberley Burton (2005). The Ancient South Asian World. The World in Ancient Times. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-522243-2. Retrieved 30 July 2013. 
    11. ^ Hanson, Wendy (2008-06-13). "Date palm seed from Masada is the oldest to germinate". Los Angeles Times. 
    12. ^ Bonner, Franklin T. (April 2008). "Chapter 4 Storage of Seeds" (PDF). Woody Plant Seed Manual,USDA FS Agriculture Handbook 727. National Seed Laboratory, 5675 Riggins Mill Rd, Dry Branch, GA 31020. Retrieved 2008-06-21. 
    13. ^ "Medjool: A Date to Remember". NPR.org. 17 October 2007. Retrieved 19 April 2015. 
    14. ^ "Date Palm". 15 October 2008. HowStuffWorks.com.
    15. ^ "The Date, Phoenix dactylifera". Retrieved 19 April 2015. 
    16. ^ http://www.unce.unr.edu/publications/files/ho/2002/sp0212.pdf
    17. ^ "Exporter and Supplier of Mazafati Date - Green Diamond Dates". 
    18. ^ "Nakhil Dates - Iranian Dates Exporter". Retrieved 19 April 2015. 
    19. ^ "Date Fruits: Benefits,Palm,cultivation - Green Diamond Dates". 
    20. ^ "FAOSTAT". 
    21. ^ Das, Bhagwan; Sarin, J. L. (1936). "Vinegar from Dates". Industrial & Engineering Chemistry. 28 (7): 814. doi:10.1021/ie50319a016. 
    22. ^ Forbes, Robert James (1971). "Studies in Ancient Technology". 
    23. ^ Walid Al-Shahib, Richard J. Marshall (2003). "The fruit of the date palm: its possible use as the best food for the future?". International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition. 54 (4): 247–259. doi:10.1080/09637480120091982. 
    24. ^ Miller, CJ; Dunn, EV; Hashim, IB (2002). "Glycemic index of 3 varieties of dates". Saudi medical journal. 23 (5): 536–8. PMID 12070575. 
    25. ^ Maier, VP; Metzler, DM; Huber, AF (1964). "3-O-Caffeoylshikimic acid (dactylifric acid) and its isomers, a new class of enzymic browning substrates". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 14: 124–8. doi:10.1016/0006-291x(64)90241-4. PMID 5836492. 
    26. ^ Diab, K.A; E. I. Aboul-Ela (2012). "In Vivo Comparative Studies on Antigenotoxicity of Date Palm (Phoenix Dactylifera L.) Pits Extract Against DNA Damage Induced by N-Nitroso-N-methylurea in Mice". Toxicology International. 19 (3): 279–286. doi:10.4103/0971-6580.103669. PMC 3532774. PMID 23293467. 
    27. ^ Kiran, S (2014). "Floral Stalk on Date Palm: A New Discovery". Int J Agril Res Innov Tech. 4 (2). doi:10.3329/ijarit.v4i2.22649. 
    28. ^ The Holy Quran, Chapter 12 - verses 22-25, retrieved on Feb. 28 2015, So she [Virgin Mary] conceived him, and she retired with him to a remote place. And the pains of childbirth drove her to the trunk of a palm tree. she cried (in her anguish): 'Ah! would that I had died before this! would that I had been a thing forgotten and out of sight!' But (a voice) cried to her from beneath the (palm-tree): 'Grieve not! for thy Lord hath provided a rivulet beneath thee; And shake towards thyself the trunk of the palm-tree; it will let fall fresh ripe dates upon thee.'
    29. ^ Islam Q & A, question # 214222: Does Islam recommend any particular foods to maintain a woman’s good health during pregnancy?, retrieved on Feb. 28 2015
    30. ^ Allen, Lee (25 April 2014). "How One Indian Couple Saved 'The Fruit of Kings'". Indian Country News. Retrieved 2016-02-27. 
    31. ^ Krueger, Robert R. "Date Palm Genetic Resource Conservation, Breeding, Genetics, And Genomics In California" (PDF). The Conference Exchange. Retrieved 2016-02-27. 
    32. ^ Date Palm Genome Drafted Science Daily, January 14, 2010, Retrieved August 30, 2010
    33. ^ Date Palm Draft Sequence Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar, updated April 7, 2010, Retrieved August 30, 2010

    External links[edit]

    Wikimedia Commons has media related to Phoenix dactylifera.
    Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Date Palm.
    Wikispecies has information related to: Phoenix dactylifera
    • INC, International Nut and Dried Fruit Council Foundation
    • Date Palm Cultivation (Food and Agriculture Organization)
    • Date Palm Products (Additional information from the FAO)
    • Date Palm entry in Encyclopaedia Iranica

    Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Date_palm



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